Seele Stem subchain protocol is a layer-2 solution to improve the scalability of Seele mainnet. A general introduction of the protocol can be found here.
To create your own Stem subchain, you need to deploy a Stem contract on Seele mainnet. Stem contract serves as an important interface between Seele mainnet and subchains. It ensures the ultimate safety of your assets in the subchains. Each Stem subchain should have its own Stem contract.
Before deploying Stem contract, you should customize the parameters in function init in StemCreation.sol.
minimum number of operators
maximum number of operators
relay frequency, i.e. relay information should be submitted with this frequency
true if new operators are allowed to join; otherwise false
minimum deposit of the creator
response to block challenges are allowed within [submission time of last relay block, submission time of last relay block + childBlockChallengePeriod]
block challenges are allowed within [submission time of last relay block, submission time of last relay block + childBlockChallengeSubmissionPeriod]
the contract will be discarded if the last relay block is not confirmed within [submission time of last relay block, submission time of last relay block + relayTimeout]
should be true initially
the bond a block submitter pays
the bond a block challenger pays
the minimum value for each operator deposit
the minimum value for each user deposit
the bond a user pays to exit
true if the contract is discarded; otherwise false; should be false initially
You can use MIN_LENGTH_OPERATOR and MAX_LENGTH_OPERATOR to specify how many operators are allowed in your subchain.
After a constant number of blocks are produced in the subchain, some relay information needs to be submitted to Stem contract. This constant number is specified by CHILD_BLOCK_INTERVAL.
IS_NEW_OPERATOR_ALLOWED is used to specify whether new operators are allowed to join after the creation of the subchain. If it is set as false, then operators can only be set up at the creation of the subchain.
creatorMinDeposit, operatorMinDeposit and userMinDeposit are the minimum amount of deposits for each deposit operation. Creator deposit is only needed when the creator creates the Stem contract. Operator deposit is needed when a new operator wants to join the subchain. A minimum user deposit is required when a user wants to deposit more funds into its subchain account.
After the information of a relay block is submitted, it could be challenged if someone finds the information incorrect. There is a time window for submitting challenges. The length of this time window is specified by childBlockChallengeSubmissionPeriod. There is a longer time window, of which the length is childBlockChallengePeriod, for submitting responses to the challenges. After childBlockChallengePeriod if there is no unresolved challenge, the relay block is confirmed.
To prevent the case that a relay block is not confirmed for a long time, relayTimeout is used as the timeout limit. When relayTimeout is exceeded, the Stem contract will be discarded, which means it can not be used anymore and reasonable mainnet funds will be returned to subchain participants. isFrozen is an indicator of whether the Stem contract is discarded. Note that once the Stem contract is discarded, it is permanent.
Bonds are used to penalize possible malicious behaviors. blockSubmissionBond is required when an operator or owner submits the information of a new relay block. If the new relay block is successfully challenged, then the blockSubmissionBond is rewarded to the challenger. The blockSubmissionBond will be returned to the submitter upon the confirmation of the relay block.
Similarly, blockChallengeBond is required when someone wants to challenge a relay block. If the challenge is successful, the challenger gets blockChallengeBond back plus the blockSubmissionBond. Otherwise, the blockChallengeBond is forfeited.
userExitBond is required when a user wants to exit part of its fund from the subchain. If the exit is completed successfully, userExitBond will be returned to the user.
You will need to deploy a series of contracts on Seele mainnet. The best way is to use controller to do it.
The input of the constructor
name of the subchain (optional)
[root hash of balance merkle tree, root hash of recent transaction merkle tree]
array of static nodes (optional)
array of operator account (subchain account); the first account is the mint account in the subchain; the second account is the melt account in the subchain; operator accounts start from the third account
array of initial operator deposit; the fist two elements are not used; starting from the third element, opsDeposits[i] is the amount of deposit of ops[i]
array of refund accounts (Seele mainnet accounts); the first two elements are not used; starting from the third element, refundAccounts[i] is the Seele mainnet account of ops[i]
Note that the contract deployment itself is a mainnet transaction. The sender of the transaction will be the owner of the Stem contract. The amount of the transaction must be greater than or equal to the sum of creator deposit and all operator deposits. The length of array ops, opsDeposits and refundAccounts must be the same. The length of ops should be at least 3; in this case, the subchain has one mint account, one melt account and an operator account. The mint account is the subchain account which issues token to subchain participants. The melt account is
After the deployment of StemRootchain.sol, you've created a Seele stem contract successfully. Congratulations!
The contract owner is able to discard the Stem contract. All the funds in the Stem contract will be returned to participants based on the information of the most recent confirmed relay block.
To register a new operator, you need to provide the operator's subchain account and mainnet account (for the use of refund). The subchain account should not be used before by other operators or users in the same subchain. The deposit amount should be greater than operatorMinDeposit.
The operator can exit from the subchain by submitting an exit request.
The operator can withdraw his reward (users' transaction fee in the subchain) by submitting a fee exit request.
The operators or owner need to submit information of relay blocks. The information is shown in the following table.
the height of relay block
should be a multiple of CHILD_BLOCK_INTERVAL
root hash of balance merkle tree of the relay block
root hash of recent transaction merkle tree of the relay block
the accounts which have a balance change since last relay block
fee income for each operator (same for each operator) since last relay block
Operators need to respond to every valid block challenge during childBlockChallengePeriod. Otherwise, the new relay block will not be confirmed. Operators needs to provide transaction history to prove the challenged accounts have claimed updated balances.
To deposit more fund to a (new or existing) user account, you need to provide the user's subchain account and mainnet account (for the use of refund). The subchain account should not be used before by other operators in the same subchain. The deposit amount should be greater than userMinDeposit.
The user can exit part (or all) of his fund from the subchain by submitting an exit request.
Users can check the updated balances in the Stem contract. If they believe the balances are incorrect, they can submit challenges during childBlockChallengeSubmissionPeriod.
The challenger needs to provide the subchain account to challenge. Additionally, the challenger can provide evidence that a transaction is included in a valid block since last confirmed relay block.